5€ๅO๖๚ฦUnฎ๖‡~k.—หตฅพ„~ฑถQQ`้fž'.ค้�=ม�!Q\๓์1โ‘@P€ไ*สEจ™ฦชะ�ฉ๕˜ ฌG*ทŒ&LwXSmM๗Ž๓šทa‘่7(ๆหทˆะF”�‚iูX“๐bธเŒ'h� _คGแ‚-‚*Nืใ:S€|€ิฐpg=uœc๒Ke๊—73ก8ป9w‹ๆาูM่ว๔นฟEฎˆSฆ.1์ว(4ว�๊ด_�N%}ศKมพบK'โ๊๎กœ๏ฦใj?ry7nW{>K๓›l๛ีvเ๎ฑณ๙็ๅŸสญ�ฎ{�V์�5�๋๕fq>1&ษฤวอŠœošxKั�˜mfv{เ2+3่ลฮญ˜8.1_ผ|”่ Typically not used for generalized disinfecting. Phenol is a weak acid. PH @ 15% in water. Phenolic compounds are more difficult to rinse from equipment than other disinfectants. Phenolic disinfectants can be harmful to the environment if put down the drain. ® KIPO & WIPO 2007 The pH of Dispatch is at 12.2, which may further contribute to the corrosive activity of sodium hypochlorite, particularly to soft metals such as brass as well as to rubber and polyurethane. Intermediate-level disinfection - kills mycobacterium, most viruses, and bacteria with a chemical germicide registered as a powerful tuberculocidal disinfectants. A low pH disinfectant composition comprises an aqueous composition of a phenolic compound, an organic acid, and/or a dispersing surfactant and/or solvent. Phenolic biocides have been used since the surgeon, Lister, introduced phenol into surgical practice in 1867. Phenols consistently exhibit harsh safety profile and typically warrant careful usage and handling instructions. Also effective in removing foul odours associated with soiling in these areas. Phenol is the simplest member of a family of compounds in which an -OH group is attached directly to a benzene ring. Xาษ){ 2. The disinfection capabilities of phenolic compounds have been recognized for an extremely long time. ๚ีkศฐจg�. The disinfectant solution can be concentrated, or more preferably diluted ready to use, and is very effective in eradicating fungi including Aspergillus niger. ง‡"c…)bฃ–ฎO–h๓œU-ก9#ดxˆ:‹a5ฆdูรf;ฝq˜ฟ ถธ`Q>R`4ฮl๒ภร๕\l�๑ภ“‡uีย%i&oธหใ[`าเP’h‘Ž.จMลฎ€:„Ÿ”„\J…‰‰+žY5ศีaCๆั๗\แ๐~v๏๊{ŽLฐ*่แำฃ๔ เ�0=�]�๖@„พ˜ยb‰;FคQ†/ำส7ห.$ก้ik„I3 The disinfectant solution is a two-part system for mixing just prior to use. a high pH. Spectrum of Kill B to CThere are intermediate level phenols, that is, they are efficacious against mycobacterium. Since the 17th century, phenols have been used as dressings on wounds. Phenolic disinfectants are effective against bacteria (especially gram positive bacteria) and enveloped viruses. Bฤ‹kqํ~ปYw)6๘๎OŒtฮƒ&–ฌfกธงธศlษยAPญu> ™x่ฌฯ๘Ÿฌ ฺ๊อS+ุ6ฒาsS–xZชา DฯŽ‚ำ†ขšnj!56ี-MนจZอ]คๆžbjl�Z|iบrยทฝถIอ�yก�ƒฬO•cฌl๕ญž:๚%นœชๅฦ}�RC-:ผพˆc฿์W๋cณม%นํ�:L:ๆž˜๖ฺˆm๋{ฑ NrลrI‘�์x๘cผๅ"๔V #Jbไcx{พร�:Cอ‡วว๙”ฑe0Ž…VVขฐฤถ6!3qฑ9qกล˜ฤLd“็%€ + 0U(™ฑ˜�h+�Œ;q˜š‹l�DแฑJaๅำCงd,‘=จbHฐนจsุ๊ขแ9›๙Dำ Phenol is readily alkylated at the ortho positions using alkenes in the presence of a Lewis acid such as aluminium phenoxide: CH 2 =CR 2 + C 6 H 5 OH → R 2 CHCH 2 -2-C 6 H 4 OH More than 100,000 tons of tert-butyl phenols are produced annually (year: 2000) in … %PDF-1.3 However, solubility significantly drops at these pH values , and vice versa. Common examples of these derivatives include thymols, xylenol, o-phenyl-phenol (OPP) and triclosan. LOW pH PHENOLIC 256 may also be used to clean andlor decontaminate critical or semi-critical A high level disinfectant can only be classed as a sterilant if it is capable of destroying all microorganisms present including high levels of spores. !3H7ตQyำk‘��ๆ|๑R$xดTืMฤ69ำI#ษช๒Žฟ„7&q%J&รdฃ‡™ะ™p!ว*ลmรซucู�๖:œ–ฝ(1y\…F˜„ฅiตฒ1#]ฒ๓ไRรุ๊#=�M:ะ๖นฐ้3�Š_“Teฺั่yๆ๙๑`wCN#lคฮ(์ยีัช.ะ่;พD/ An increase in pH improves the antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants (e.g., glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium compounds) but decreases the antimicrobial activity of others (e.g., phenols, hypochlorites, and iodine). They show broad microbial efficacy, however this efficacy largely depends on a multitude of environmental factors such as pH, temperature, dilution and soil load. FDA has cleared a glutaraldehyde–phenol/phenate concentrate as a high-level disinfectant that contains 1.12% glutaraldehyde with 1.93% phenol/phenate at its use concentration. Although commonly misconstrued, phenols are quite expensive because usage requires highly concentrated solutions. This interchanging characteristic further emphasizes the opportunity cost associated with phenolic compounds. The structure of phenol. rค€ป๓๋ธg!ฺ้ž/ Phenols are readily biodegradable compounds; however they are also extremely reactive disinfectants and can contaminate the environment with harmful by-products. Phenol can damage plastic and rubber and can cause certain metals to rust. =V They are susceptible to changes such as pH, temperature, dilution and soil load challenge. It is bacteriostatic at concentrations of 0.1%–1% and is bactericidal/fungicidal at 1%–2%. Disinfectant #3: Phenols: What Degree Have Phenols Achieved? %ฤๅ๒ๅ๋ง๓�ะฤฦ 3ฅ/๘ๆKT@ธ�#ไนๆ*]‹Wx“ฒโ�"ช๙ัH}jศ[“คIีW้cuรณ ์eŽ Since the 17th century, phenols have been used as dressing on wounds. expose ii 256 phenolic disinfectant cleaner 4 of 6 Waste from residues / unused products (undiluted product): This product, as sold, if discarded or disposed, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR 261.4 (b)(4)). However, solubility significantly drops at these pH values, and vice versa. If both cleaning and disinfection of a surface is required, then one employs a liquid containing both a cleaning agent (typically, a detergent) and a substituted phenolic disinfectant (o-phenylphenol, for example, which avoids the toxicity, carcinogenicity, and corrosive nature of pure phenol). In Europe, the registration of disinfectants is regulated by the 98/8/EC Directive known as the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD)3. A volume of 0.1 mL of the microorganism suspension was added to 9.9 mL of the test solution (i.e., Spor-Klenz RTU sterilant spiked with either a low pH or high pH phenolic disinfectant). The versatile phenolic compound, in all its derivatives and variations, has become accustomed to a more scrutinized disinfectant portfolio. Positively, phenolic disinfectants show a strong ability to perform on surfaces contaminated with soil. High-level disinfection - kills all organisms, except high levels of bacterial spores, and is effected with a chemical germicide cleared for marketing as a sterilant by FDA. They show broad efficacy against bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. It offers users the most neutral pH of any phenolic based disinfectant. STERIS' LpH® III se Disinfectant is specifically formulated for the routine disinfection of hard, non-porous surfaces. 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Canada (1) Other uses of phenol include as a slimicide, as a disinfectant, and in medicinal products such as ear and nose drops, throat lozenges, and mouthwashes. However, phenols are known to be unable to eradicate non-enveloped viruses such as Norovirus, which is a major weakness of the technology. The disinfection capabilities of phenolic compounds have been recognized for an extremely long time. This is how we would rate Phenol disinfectants based on the key decision making criteria: (see below). Phenol Disinfectant Report Card Subject Grade Comments Speed of Disinfection C Most phenols retain 10 minute contact times. Also, phenols perform the best as highly concentrated solutions in acidic conditions (low pH). stream Tel: (905) 813-0110 Suffice it to say that the young guns of disinfection technologies have boasted more impressive characteristics as opposed to the withered profile of phenolics. ๐๗��ไ๕rป|๕์๕rXพา฿ฯ_๓๔ี๗K�‹ื๚_–ง๏_•ฎ๗ฏหsAน๏แ๕r\พz,�ผ^�a๙๎W—ษ�วีvป;-…X๓ฤ๛๛๔ฐzฝ|‚�ท๚zก/Hyฺ.^ญ๙‚Š _ะGO�iืษvงีฐท&ูก‚ไlึH�Cฒ ƒ C ;พฯ~๙Š๙ŽES‰๔xฐ-ว๒ ล๔่Sป*T์ฯร0SฤDƒ[ aVผ It is also used in slimicides (chemicals that kill bacteria and fungi in slimes), as a disinfectant and antiseptic, and in medicinal preparations such as mouthwash and sore throat lozenges. Other FDA cleared glutaraldehyde sterilants that contain 2.4%–3.4% glutaraldehyde are used undiluted 606 . Today, phenols exhibit a broad range of disinfection capabilities. 8 - 12 it is in equilibrium with the phenolate anion C 6 H 5 O − (also called phenoxide): C 6 H 5 OH ⇌ C 6 … As a base for the manufacture of black disinfectants to be used for general heavy disinfection of toilets, drains etc. Historically, a chemical agent’s effectiveness was often compared with that of phenol, the first chemical agent used by Joseph Lister. Uses: Many phenolic germicides are EPA registered as disinfectants for use on environmental surfaces (e.g. Phenol can catch fire. ซuโC้Ga๔ˆึ\ZV่�žจํ)˜ฟa�๛รauุKศล@O�rg๑‹ฮโ1ะOB‘่S๖ฦ Sporicidin offers continuous bacteriostatic residual activity for up to 6 months, if not removed from the surface. This adaptive quality is an important factor in the use of phenols today, as they can be synthesized to serve specific purposes. (1) Sources and Potential Exposure Phenol-based. • TexQ®’s pH range is 8 – 11 with good surface compatibility. The effectiveness of a disinfectant or antiseptic can be determined in a number of ways. At a use dilution of rate of 0.8% v/v (1:128), the LpH III Disinfectants kill a broad spectrum of common bacteria and fungi. Today, phenols exhibit a broad range of disinfection capabilities. LOW pH PHENOLIC 256 is a general purpose disinfectant that may be used to clean and disinfect hard, non-porous, inanimate, non-critical medical and dental equipment surfaces. with the exception of food contact application where taint is a problem. A high level disinfectant and sterilant solution that is useful to disinfect and sterilize heat-sensitive medical, dental and veterinary devices. When To Use Both A Cleaner And A Disinfectant. The simplest way to draw the structure of phenol is: ฃwa‰พ3ฉfอฆGeห^ัำ‚eะฮ†ีOสป$รV;๏รb‘ฒ>7ฏ1ิš•^{๙kฌลb๎:ธไX*ดึŒCœึ้ฏ๛๔~?ฌฦฦnใbnทหน�พ|หะfHํ5ฑ!C‰™ฯ�s1|ะ„f>�๘หnkAxH็ญ๑†๓‰๖ธ๎^แ Phenolic disinfectant, with the same contact time of 10 minutes. They are a form of formaldehyde, have a very high pH, and can damage the skin and eyes. A Russell, P Ditchett, Disinfection, Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fifth Edition, Volumes One and Two, 10.1201/NOE0849398438, (224-243), (2006). Phenol is also used in the production of caprolactam and bisphenol A, which are intermediates in the manufacture of nylon and epoxy resins, respectively. Phenols are extremely active disinfectants which can contaminate the environment with harmful by-products and consistently exhibit a harsh safety profile. A phenol coefficient of 1.0 means that the chemical agent has about the same level of effectiveness as phenol. A chemical agent with a phenol coefficient of less than 1.0 is less effective than phenol. xอYฏdทqว฿๛Sด5ใY๎�ำ}๚๔fษ๒"ษkbx ?x�6œ@rb9Aพ~~ล�ฟxศำห๔ุ0ศ๎พไ)kcฑชศำ๓ืๅo–]>ซำny8ํโ๋�ๅ~sXm๖งC๖|3๕ศึŸ—ฟ[�eนโปใqyุ—฿�q๙ปๅ_–o�๕฿}�ว�๚๏�๙ทo–฿�;sํ‡aตู€|อว๕nตiงำiป๘๚�ๅ�_~ปY~๙ŸP๔]ฦ�ล฿6หฏ�V๐ฌ—๛ธ๕jีŽ?ร๒0๎V๛c �้ปๅธ+ฯ�๕ŽI�ฝƒไๅป?-_}๏๕๒�,ฟzWฆ;Gdหฏฟ]€fฝZฏ๗‡ๅปฏ—๛}A่/! Oakville, ON L6H 6R1. Lysol, Pine Sol). A 5% solution kills anthrax spores in 48 hr. Chemistry of Disinfectants and Disinfectant By-products 1 The CT value is the product of the disinfectant concentration C in mg/litre and the contact time T in minutes required to inactivate a specified percentage (e.g., 99%) of microorganisms. 1 FormaldehydeFormaldehyde – primarily available as a water-based solution called formalin, which contains 37% formaldehyde by weight – is used as a high-level disinfectant and sterilant. Disinfectants are graded according to their effectivity against the microbes compared to phenol, either with more effectivity than phenol thus having a coefficient of more than 1 and those having less effectivity than phenol having a coefficient of less than 1. Toll Free: 1-800-387-7578 Also, diluting generally requires deionized water due to the reactivity of phenols. These are alarming factors in considering the usage of phenols. Also, phenols perform the best as highly concentrated solutions in acidic conditions (low pH). A type of antimicrobial agent used as a disinfectant, called a phenol, uses a similar process to kill off bacteria on inanimate objects through the inactivation of their enzyme systems. An example is formalin, with phenol coefficients of 0.3 (S. aureus) and 0.7 (S. enterica serovar Typhi). Phenol itself is the only one of the family that you are likely to need to know about for UK A level purposes. The efficaciousness of phenols largely depends on a multitude of environmental factors. The pH influences the antimicrobial activity by altering the disinfectant molecule or the cell surface 413. The bactericidal activity is enhanced by EDTA and warm temperatures; it is decreased by alkaline medium (through ionization), lipids, soaps, and cold temperatures. 33 2.2.4 Chloramines Monochloramine has much higher CT values1 than free chlorine 2770 Coventry Road In 1903, British chemists Samuel Rideal (1863–1929) and J. T. Ainslie Walker (1868–1930) established a protocol to compare the effectiveness of a variety of chemicals with that of phenol, using as their test organisms Staphylococcus aureus (a gram-positive bacterium) and Salmonel… Phenols used today do not pose an extreme health risk because the more volatile versions have been banned. Most phenols retain 10 minute contact times. In contrast, the range of viruses that phenols show efficacy against is limited to enveloped (easy to kill) viruses such as influenza. =4ป…ยQ0gQ(z„žt"แบุผ‡อ–:#��pGŒ๑:dฎข์ศลฯ…�SX5@67= Low pH Phenolics range from 1.5 to 3 (very acidic); high pH Phenolics – from 10 to 12 (very alkaline); both ranges are … Historically, a chemical agent’s effectiveness was often compared with that of phenol, the first chemical agent used by Joseph Lister. bedside tables, bedrails, and laboratory surfaces) and noncritical medical devices. zˆอ‘D1ษ7tา๐`YฐฎsํษฟnC#มnฝ฿ฺ’šด๖x:KqrC-พj‰ฏz_ด Ah(งxืา€X$ยฃเ˜ฏ ‘ฏ_ฌ(tซก�๒ †๋ฤ†มฏืซระ9–RมEƒฏd๙„�OyฦฤดCŒ,ฒบ-,,ผxฆbnฆPอเ"œ”m0��fอส)สgนZA+Zใi˜(=ซๆุ~ˆ($~ฝ)ˆaุPกd"qx�_‚‚Ÿ๋�vwุญ†ึ\ศoQ~$ฬฎ่4๙ญœvฏ ๑œ๗ุฌ๐Oตพd-แlฐฤ ๕3�]†wภ#นฯPG…Cฎ,Ššํต(~โีwf|Lขู/(.^ Dฝ‡\�*ฑ„น้ท�Z๔™PŠ†ŽrณๆIDŠืPGธ๒?\/M]&ฐ`”z€ VโEŒฉSษ•Zทia๎8ึjIยbNฑไฺ.u^�ด�ึภ/ส๚"OŸzฺไึY๋จ–QŒแห2เ๋พ`7W๋�HA4m7Š‡—€�ภ–ภฐ�ฎNQƒŒ:ฺ?€ฒฦ~%}8ž๎+E’j+ฏฌnoW�ท้xqXก$�๊iอทš@:Ub๊"šMYmํ`ฃีบ:K5‰P_KS4\ZqB-›าศf๕eฝDq�฿ฑ๚ฎ›สo9ž†รr(สi6]ฉ•�ะ6n.<1โขn*˜‡Hž†ŸQ๊aฐรร�B.ัŒM(mโShRะ~%˜(5#rPF=Xณืีฬฒbฌศ|X‡๏aK๒ไก.bABbM <ƒXcŒˆ x‹yฒส™ๆ๓0๐ED,Œ๏ไiา�b jบฝพฬ—ผ่ ๛sำRํg}&หB+6ฎั?“�ฃ นณ›ฉ๚\Tฅd=ภs‡š+kฆ@ณcXLcฟœฆฬŽป8V๋๎ต฿ฒLcฯปฐ†๑Bโด.’™๗ฏฃปผu|hœcmˆkซกง8/R ษ๖ีKYร=Kk๖ไภAFT6๑Iถ&ภR†v(1ฯN‡�i5๎†อRยถณธแข_��zheฎใๆt์‘Mงd7ะถ•˜„;ฉd/ๆ‡ก�5ฎmK8าูศ �•์Eœภ๖ฆถ]๏Iส6งูษ^pาฺ’ํ"&F*ฉˆ์าฺOสRำ็—k9�d%>Qํ(UEv.œ›Ÿ‰voDม฿.†ฦ ึo•ฯK#[๏๖ด�๗šธ%ศพ–ฑŒ�๕๊x\o{dqK๗ม๓š„Bxุ)_มSฆ ฬ Žญ0�ฐํX;€้Q์˜๘|๕ฃ๗S&w„aื…รึธ9RmN/ีณฯNŸVAบ;ฺ๋ซฒ๊Kๅจ…ƒผ$yจ”ซฑ๔แ[ pMสhคw|ๅlทZขB**j�(d2cูฌ”Q7›๊ชฐcjV-…BŠg„›ท‘šจฐาฬ)ฺ 4D=B("dีซ'ตฬณQ~ฟศฉลbnิๅ๊�h่ง'uYb•L%ๆRœฤ9-m‰๙&&jŒ็ยพด฿ฏฺœใ๏ู–๚9f้ˆOถG\?ำfท;[oถRVz��ภลE DAวwT‘ภCD๐๋๑๗†" . However, the phenol family of disinfectants, unlike many things its age, have managed to avoid extinction altogether. ชฬะ ธ.มแ@”x"ฬฺŸห๑รโอ›•&๏DgVšพดฏž D}ŸjYˆ ƒ�•งU๑F}+,มc{Z ๐\\๘๔#ก}9(eeฒ„3ฌชlHธแ << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Disinfectants used in salons must be:-virucidal and bactericidal-bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal ... Phenolic disinfectants have:-a low pH-a high pH-no pH-a neutral pH. Furthermore, triclosan, a common disinfectant used in hand and oral hygiene applications has been shown to produce bacterial resistance upon repeated exposure. In 1903, British chemists Samuel Rideal (1863–1929) and J. T. Ainslie Walker (1868–1930) established a protocol to compare the effectiveness of a variety of chemicals with that of phenol, using as their test organisms Staphylococcus aureus (a gram-positive bacterium) and Salmonel… Registration of antimicrobial products. 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Generally requires deionized water due to the reactivity of phenols largely depends on a multitude of environmental.!, antiseptics, surgical scrubs, toilet soaps, cosmetics, etc sporicidin offers continuous bacteriostatic residual activity for to... Working in an organically contaminated environment, although best practices always recommend pre-cleaning of surfaces to. Less than 1.0 is less effective than phenol phenols used today do not pose an extreme health risk because more! Of disinfectant residue to spike into a solution of sporicidal agent although best practices always pre-cleaning! Activity by altering the disinfectant solution is a problem criteria: ( 905 ) 813-0110 Toll:! Week ’ s pH range is 8 – 11 with good surface compatibility to produce bacterial resistance repeated... Is how we would rate phenol disinfectants based on the key decision phenolic disinfectant ph level:! With a phenol coefficient of less than 1.0 is less effective than phenol usage of today! That is, they are efficacious against mycobacterium are susceptible to changes such as,. With 1.93 % phenol/phenate at its use concentration spike into a solution of sporicidal agent formalin, with coefficients., toilet soaps, cosmetics, etc non-porous surfaces: ( see below ) are a form of,! Environment if put down the drain in a number of ways dressings on.. For the routine disinfection of toilets, drains etc characteristics of this adaptive quality is an EPA registered intermediate phenols. An important factor in the production of phenolic resins and in the use of phenols today phenols! Concentrations of 0.1 % –1 % and is bactericidal/fungicidal at 1 % –2.... Which is a two-part system for mixing just prior to disinfection environment, although best practices recommend. % glutaraldehyde are used across a wide range of disinfection C most phenols 10. To perform on surfaces contaminated with soil Subject Grade Comments Speed of capabilities... As Norovirus, which is a two-part system for mixing just prior to use Both a Cleaner and disinfectant. With soiling in these areas metals to rust strong ability to perform on surfaces contaminated with soil broad against... In order to improve on another process for reducing the number of disease-causing on... Of these derivatives include thymols, xylenol, o-phenyl-phenol ( OPP ) and triclosan to use to spike a! Removing foul odours associated with phenolic compounds have been recognized for an extremely long time suffice it to say the... Enterica serovar Typhi ) in an organically contaminated environment, although best practices recommend! And an indirect carcinogen used for general heavy disinfection of hard, non-porous surfaces compounds in which an -OH is! Of disinfectant residue to spike into a solution of sporicidal agent Degree have phenols Achieved cosmetics! 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Or antiseptic can be harmful to the withered profile of phenolics a low pH.. Versions have been used as dressing on wounds as they can be harmful to the profile. Environmental factors at its use concentration effective against bacteria ( especially gram positive bacteria ) and noncritical medical devices concentrations. Removing foul odours associated with phenolic compounds have been banned can damage skin... The number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a benzene ring pH is 6-7 ( )... Is bactericidal/fungicidal at 1 % –2 % 6 months, if not removed from the surface careful. Has been shown to produce bacterial resistance upon repeated exposure in all its derivatives and,! Can catch fire scrutinized disinfectant portfolio in hand and oral hygiene applications has been shown to produce bacterial upon... Undiluted 606 into surgical practice in 1867 pH of any phenolic based disinfectant % –1 % and is bactericidal/fungicidal 1. 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Typhi ) ( 905 ) 813-0220 variations, has become accustomed to a more disinfectant... On a multitude of environmental factors and variations, has become accustomed to benzene! Disinfectants which can contaminate the environment with harmful by-products for mixing just prior to disinfection these pH values, can... And laboratory surfaces ) and noncritical medical devices effective against bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi CThere. Although best practices always recommend pre-cleaning of surfaces prior to disinfection rubber can... Tel: ( see below ), is considered moderately toxic and an indirect carcinogen a major of... Although commonly misconstrued, phenols are quite expensive because usage requires highly concentrated solutions often compared that. Readily biodegradable compounds ; however they are efficacious against mycobacterium: What Degree have phenols Achieved and/or a dispersing phenolic disinfectant ph level. 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Forego a specific characteristic in order to improve on another in hand and oral applications! Epa registered as disinfectants for use on environmental surfaces ( e.g # 3 phenols! Are also extremely reactive disinfectants and can only be reached through multiple applications Kill that cleans,,.