Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), Clinical Detection and Management of Dental Restorative Materials during Scaling and Polishing, Clinical Aspects of Dental Materials 5th Edition. The hydrophilic end displaces the dentinal fluid, to wet the surface. Dentists used etched composites to bond together mobile, periodontally involved teeth; to stabilize replanted, avulsed teeth; and to stabilize segments of fractured jaws. It is common in everyday life; it is used in manufacturing, repairs, and dentistry. Compare the differences between the microanatomy of enamel and dentin regarding etching and bonding. micromechanical and chemical bonding to dental resin cements. In the light of … Dental bonding is an alternative to teeth veneers and can be used as a restorative procedure for teeth that are chipped, cracked, discolored or misarranged.. How does dental bonding work? 4.3B). The basic mechanism of adhesion between tooth structure and adhesive bonding agents is based on an exchange process. The definition of adhesion or bonding in dentistry is not concise. It’s widely used in total-etch and specifically used in direct light-cured restorative materials. Abstract. Illustration of the effects of temperature changes and microleakage. Once the liquid sets, a plastic resin is applied and sculpted into the desired shape by the dentist. 1.3) and other mechanical locks are not necessary when adhesive materials are used. Rather than the extensive removal of undermined enamel in anterior restorations, interior enamel reinforcement through acid-etch bonding deserves consideration. First, the enamel surface is cleaned with pumice or a similar abrasive. The attachment that dental bonding creates with a tooth is a simple mechanical one (as opposed to a chemical bond). Associate Professor, Department of Operative Dentistry. Biofilms reduce (or even prevent) bonding of many dental adhesives. After the etching gel is rinsed off, the liquid composite resin in a well-matched shade is painted on in a thin layer, filling these tiny pores to create a strong micromechanical bond. Bonding agents are often methacrylates with some volatile carrier and solvent like acetone. The dentin glue interface forms a dense and permanent permanent between dentin and composite resins. (2) curable monomer for mechanical bonding within enamel microporosities and dentin collagen. Effects of contamination and mechanical disturbance on the quality of acid-etched enamel. It's due to an interlocking of the cured bonding agent within the nooks and crannies of the etched enamel surface. The acetone trails water and improves penetration of the monomers into the dentin for better micromechanical bonding. Note the chalky or frosty appearance of the surface, and compare this with the glossy surface of the unetched first molar. This ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth and improves the overall appearance of teeth. Macro-mechanical bonding has been used in dentistry for decades by creating dentin undercuts in the cavity designs of intra-coronal restorations to prevent removal and by relying on surface roughness of both extra-coronal restorations and tooth structure to allow dental cements to prevent restoration withdrawal. 4.3C ). The acid-etched composite is the “gold standard” of adhesion in dentistry, against which all other materials and techniques are compared to judge strength of bond, utility of use, and longevity. • Formulated by adding the following to MMA (1950)monomer: • 4 methacryloxy ethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) • 10 … Dent Mater 2008;24:994-1000. tooth. Due to its resistance to aggressive chemical agents, chemical bonding of zirconia is difficult when compared to silica-based ceramics materials. To remedy this, use of a dental rubber dam is recommended when working with adhesive materials. Minerals from hard tissue are replaced by resin monomers that effectively create a micromechanical bond. If, during the testing procedure, the adhesive breaks the tooth, this is also a cohesive failure, and it signals that the strength of the bond is greater than the strength of the teeth. Schematic representation of the acid-etching process for enamel. Microleakage increases the likelihood of recurrent caries and postoperative sensitivity. Explain the difference between micromechanical bonding and macromechanical bonding and provide an example of each type. (1) a translating material - allows hydrophobic adhesive to bond to hydrophilic dentin/enamel. If the pulp is irritated by fluid movement or bacterial metabolic wastes (acids), pain occurs. This roughened surface has sometimes been termed “enamel tags” or “micropores.” A low-viscosity liquid polymer system is applied to the roughened surface. In dentistry, macromechanical bonding is used for cementing or luting crowns and bridges to teeth with “nonadhesive” cements. In the case of dentin and enamel bonding, the restorative resin adhesive either interlocks with the collagen in the … Creating surface micro-irregularities 2. 2- Micromechanical Bonding to fiber posts. 11. Internal enamel reinforcement through micromechanical bonding Gerald E. Denehy, D.D.S., M.S.,* and Dennis L. Torney, D.D.S., M.S. With this type of joining, stress is greatly concentrated in the vicinity of the fastener. 2014 Oct;72(7):543-8. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2013.876661. Such numbers are useful only for general comparisons, however. Although other uses are common, use as a luting agent has given this group of materials their name, cements. A. Vertical bars represent a clean surface composed of enamel rods. 1. The application of appropriately selected adhesive material with proper technique will ensure a successful long term clinical outcome [3]. Since bonded restorations were introduced by Buonocore in 1955, extensive research has been conducted to develop systems that bond equally effectively to enamel and dentin. 4. 13. Abrasive disk are used for gross reduction, contouring, finishing and polishing of restoration surfaces and not . The acid-etching technique is used to bond materials to enamel, but not to dentin. The acid or etchant, which is typically 37% orthophosphoric acid, is applied for 15 to 30 seconds to permanent teeth. Soon, researchers learned that the enamel of the tooth and the metal of the fixed bridge could be both etched and then bonded together. Takeaways from this section. Photograph of etched enamel on the second molar (taken in a mirror). Water keeps collagen fibrils from collapsing, thus helping in better penetration and … Copyright © 1976 Published by Mosby, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(76)90139-6. PDF | On Jan 1, 2019, N. Alsalem and others published Chemical bonding and micromechanical interlocking to dental zirconia substrate | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The acetone trails water and improves penetration of the monomers into the dentin for better micromechanical bonding. Both materials are based on polyacrylic acid, and both chemically bond to dentin and enamel. Bonding restorative materials to enamel, dentin, or both is a major goal of restorative dentistry. Repeated expansion and contraction of teeth and restorations at different rates result in fluids being sucked in and pushed out at the margins of a restoration. 2. 2. the development of a close emotional tie to a mate or to a newborn; called also claiming and binding-in. Layers can continue to be built up until the restoration has the necessary … Though bonding will not last as long as a dental veneer, it also does not require the involvement of a dental laboratory and, most often, can be done without drilling of the tooth. The introduction of bonding agents in restorative dentistry has made it possible to adhere restorative materials to tooth structure. 6. dental laboratories also place technicians and dentist ... Vitreous bonding fused with ceramic or glassy matrix 3. They are discussed later in this chapter. Bonding Mechanisms Mechanical bonding Molecular Adhesion Micromechanical bonding 12. The technique is simple and micromechanical, and it has not changed appreciably over the years. This philosophy is not new; in 1897, Baldwin suggested placing a thin, wet layer of zinc phosphate cement on the cavity walls prior to condensing the amalgam in an attempt to improve the bond and marginal seal; the acidity of the unset zinc phosphate cement probably etched the tooth, creating micromechanical retention. Kurokawa H, Miyazaki M, Takamizawa T, Rikuta A, Tsubota 14. Ideally a dentin bonding agent should have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends. Surface preparation to remove plaque & debris Acid etching with phosphoric acid, to remove mineral, create porosity, wettability Bonding … FIGURE 4.3. Det pågår en ständig utveckling av olika dentala material avsedda föratt ersätta förlorad tandsubstans. This would be like putting a Band-Aid on Pig-Pen of the “Peanuts” comic strip. Requirements of Dentin Bonding Agents 1. In addition, force is more evenly distributed on the joint with micromechanical bonding, making it stronger than macromechanical bonding. The bond strength of micromechanical bonding mechanism sometimes exceed the cohesive bond of enamel. Airborne Particle Abrasion Airborne particle abrasion with Al 2 O 3 is the most studied. Undercuts (as illustrated in Fig. It’s an excellent choice in the treatment of cervical sensitivity. Adhesion is commonly used to keep restorations in place. Many other uses for acid etching and composite materials were developed in the 1970s and 1980s. J Am Dent Assoc. Resinoid bonding cold pressed or hot pressed and heat to resin 4. Excellent dentin bonding (20-30+ MPa) and similar micromechanical adhesion strength to both prepared and unprepared enamel allow effective use for direct and indirect composites. 3. The most important reason to reduce microleakage is to minimize the likelihood of recurrent caries (secondary decay). macromechanical … Note the significant staining of the margin of tooth #10. FIGURE 4.2. When the coefficient of thermal expansion of a restorative material does not match that of the tooth structure, uneven expansion and contraction occur. Note the significant staining of the margin of tooth #10. restorative materials being the most popular. The difference is that they occur at a different scale or physical size. If the glue is strong, the objects are now joined together. Expect the whole procedure to take 30 minutes to an hour. Therefore, the oral environment limits the types of adhesives used in dentistry. In turn, gaps, leakage and percolation occur at the interface of the restoration and the tooth. The dental profession has spent most of its history restoring the effects of dental disease, but currently, the majority of restoration work is replacement or repair of prior treatment. Abrasive disk are used for gross reduction, contouring, finishing and polishing of restoration surfaces and not . When the coefficient of thermal expansion of a restorative material does not match that of the tooth structure, uneven expansion and contraction occur. Summarize the main differences between glass ionomer cements and dentinal bonding. Whether the adhesive bonding is macromechanical, micromechanical, or truly adhesive (chemical), the surface must be clean to allow intimate association of the adhesive (bonding material) and the adherend (the surface). The polymer system reacts chemically (polymerizes), changing from a liquid into a solid. Resin penetration into the intertubular dentin seems to be a major factor influencing the bond … Bonding agents were tentatively introduced in the early 1970s. This type of break is called an adhesive failure. The most common means of bonding adhesive to tooth is through micromechanical bonding, which involves the interlocking of an adhesive to irregularities in the tooth. Also known as a "bonderizer" bonding agents (spelled dentin bonding agents in American English) are resin materials used to make a dental composite filling material adhere to both dentin and enamel. A bond that is stronger than tooth structure provides no advantage because the teeth, rather than the restoration, will break during failure. Dental Adhesion • The principles of adhesive in dentistry date back to 1955 when Buonocore … If the failure occurred inside the bonding material, the break is called a cohesive failure. Uekusa S, Yamaguchi K, Miyazaki M, et al. A clean surface is one that is uncontaminated by oral fluids, such as saliva, blood, or crevicular fluid. 4.1). The internal acid-etch technique is not proposed as the answer to all problems relating to unsupported enamel. The force necessary to push or pull the bonded material off the tooth is measured in megapascals (mPa). To Learn More, Visit Our Cosmetic Tooth Bonding Page Or Call Today! For additional ancillary materials related to this chapter, please visit thePoint. restorative, cosmetic and preventive dentistry. It's a particularly good solution for teens, who often need to wait until their teeth have finished maturing before choosing a more permanent type of dental restoration. A biofilm is a coating that derives from organisms, both large and small. With this type of bonding, surface roughness can be seen and/or felt. Adper single bonding agent has extremely small particles that keep them in colloidal suspension. To Learn More, Visit Our Cosmetic Tooth Bonding Page Or Call Today! Bonding efficiency bonding of self-etching dental adhesives: Influence of the smear of single-step self-etch systems to sound primary and permanent layer. One megapascal is equal to 145 pounds per square inch (psi). bonding [bond´ing] 1. joining together securely with an adhesive substance. The biofilm from saliva helps to lubricate the food bolus for swallowing, so it should not be surprising that biofilms are readily soluble in stomach acid and, therefore, do not inhibit the digestion of food. It is, however, one useful method of conservative treatment when the proper situation arises. It is thought that optimal bonding of the parents to a newborn requires a period of close contact in the first few hours after birth. It increases the surface area and enhances mechanical interlocking between the cement and the roughened surface of a post. Dentin Operative Dentistry 2006;31-5:569-76. Usually, a small portion of material is bonded to a tooth and then pushed or pulled in an attempt to remove it. Discuss two of the earlier fallacies about dentinal bonding and how research has changed current practice. Plastic, composite, and porcelain veneers were developed that could be bonded to the labial surface of anterior teeth to hide discolored enamel, to close spaces, and to change the shape of teeth. Adhesion reduces or eliminates microleakage of restorations (Fig. Researchers have identified a micromechanical retention mechanism … Bonding uses tooth-colored materials to replace missing tooth structure or hide cosmetically unappealing minor defects in a tooth — chips, discoloration, and even minor spacing irregularities. Next, the liquid bonding resin (polymer system) is applied. Although chemical bonds can form in a few substrate/adhesive combinations, for example, epoxy resin and aluminum, they are generally uncommon in dentistry except for those that occur between carboxylate-based luting agents and the calcium within dental hard tissues. Kurokawa H, Miyazaki M, … material that can stick to a flat surface or bond 2 flat surfaces together (most dental adhesives involve micromechanical adhesion or bonding); true adhesion involves chemical bonds between the material being joined, but not all bonding to tooth structure is truely adhesive In dentistry, ionic bonding exists in some dental materials, such as in gypsum structures and phosphate-based cements. The adhesive is micromechanically locked into the spaces between the enamel rods. (Pig-Pen is the character who is so dirty that a dust cloud follows him wherever he goes.) Micromechanical bonding of dental materials to tooth structure is common. By Evaggelia Papia. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The new solid is now bonded to the micromechanically roughened enamel surface. 4. Luckily, the enamel pellicle is easily removed when acids are used to etch enamel and dentin. Acid etching was initially conceived by Dr. Michael Buonocore in the 1950s to seal pits and fissures. When applying an adhesive to an object, the surface must be clean. Water keeps collagen fibrils from collapsing, thus helping in better … Obturate/Obturation —To form an obstruction, or to obstruct. Reliable adhesive bonding … Definition. Authors Elif Öztürk … (2) curable monomer for mechanical bonding within enamel microporosities and dentin collagen. Years of clinical data demonstrate the advantages of using acid-etching techniques for bonding to enamel. We will define micromechanical bonding as bonding using surface irregularities smaller than can be seen with the naked eye or felt with a dental explorer. Capitol Dental Associates In Hartford, CT Offers Services And Treatments For All Your Dentistry Needs. Bonding efficiency bonding of self-etching dental adhesives: Influence of the smear of single-step self-etch systems to sound primary and permanent layer. Micromechanical adhesion is the primary mechanism for luting of restorations to teeth with dental cements and probably also contributes significantly to bonding achieved with resin-based adhesives as, for example, in fissure sealants and direct bonding of restorative resins. Dentin bonding refers to the process of bonding resin with a conditional dentin, where the mineral component is replaced by resin monomers formation of biocomposite, which includes dentin collagen and cured resin. Dental cements hold appliances and restorations in place with micromechanical and macromechanical retention. Later, when dental composite restorations were developed in the 1960s, acid-etching techniques were used during placement. Rubber bonding which is made similar to resinoid bonding. Dental cements fill in the roughness on the surface of the tooth and on the inside of the crown. Dent Mater 2008;24:994-1000. tooth. Bonding materials are called “composite resins” because they contain a mixture of plastic and glass, which adds strength and translucency. Once the first layer is cured, another layer is painted on and cured. If the adhesive came off cleanly, then the break occurred at the interface. Firstly, it is a solid–liquid interface that is commonly encountered when bonding a dental material to tooth tissue. Sometimes, adhesion is used to bond a weak esthetic restorative material, such as a porcelain veneer, to the stronger remaining tooth structure so that the tooth supports the weak restorative material. Adhesive: A material that can join substances together, resist separation and transmit loads across the bond. Because it … (3) may collapse collagen network - decreases opportunities for micromechanical retention. The etched surface is rough, allowing a low-viscosity adhesive (resin system) to flow into the irregularities and then cure (or set). 2. micromechanical bonding bonding using surface irregularities smaller than can be seen with the naked eye or felt with a dental explorer micromechanical Is superglue an example of micromechanical bonding or macromechanical bonding? The micromechanical properties of the adhesives were determined by the adhesive type and were less influenced by ceramic type and curing time. Dental bonding materials are widely used in dentistry and there are several available kinds. Several protocols were described. However, the longevity and efficacy of some of these bonding techniques continue to be evaluated by clinical research. Micromechanical bonding—Mechanical adhesion associated with bonding of an adhesive to a roughened adherend surface. Screws, nails, nuts, bolts, and other fasteners are examples of macromechanical joining of objects at an even larger scale. Dentin Operative Dentistry 2006;31-5:569-76. Remember that all dental materials must function in a wet, hostile environment for an extended period of time to be useful. Otherwise, the adhesive will bond to the dirt and debris on the surface rather than to the surface itself. Uekusa S, Yamaguchi K, Miyazaki M, et al. (Courtesy of Dr. Ronald House, Bethesda, MD.). Composite Bonding - By East River Dental Care - East River Dental Care is an experienced full-service dental office in Newmarket and offer a wide range of services such as preventive dentistry to more complicated dentistry including wisdom teeth extractions and implant restorations. For bonding purposes, the surface is no longer amalgam, enamel, or composite; the surface the adhesive “sees” or “feels” is biofilm. 4.2). Epub 2014 Feb 4. Sealing the margins of restorations reduces or eliminates microleakage and reduces postoperative sensitivity and staining. 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Have been introduced for use as a luting agent has extremely small particles that keep them in suspension... Which to colonize and proliferate techniques for bonding to tooth tissue the acid-etching technique has been modified using dental. Environment for an extended period of time to be an easy task but requires... Adhesive to bond amalgam and ceramic and cast metallic restorations to dentin was more difficult and crannies the... An extended period of time to be bonded to each other is not concise mixture of plastic and glass which! Micromechanical bonding—The mechanical interlocking between the tooth/restoration junction or interface addition, one must know the. Are useful only for general comparisons, however can join substances together, resist separation and loads. Place with micromechanical and macromechanical retention is insufficient, it appears chalky or frosty white, as shown Figure! The 1950s to seal pits and fissures of some of these bonding techniques continue be! 100 ( 1 ) a translating material - allows hydrophobic adhesive to materials... That keep them in colloidal suspension bonding fused with ceramic or glassy matrix 3, College of dentistry filling...... Vitreous bonding fused with ceramic or glassy matrix 3 crown is luted or glued in place the... Or both is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors their name, cements,,! Is strong, the break occurred at the interface between the microanatomy of rods! 145 pounds per square inch ( psi ) sensitivity is caused by fluids and bacteria between the of... Liquid will more readily wet the surface with a nonirritating hermetic sealing agent to leakage... Or to obstruct break during failure where, M is the joining together securely with an acidic gel that up! Or enamel with the use of a dental rubber dam is recommended when working with adhesive materials are based polyacrylic. Him wherever he goes. ) cleaned so it is used to orthodontic! As two pieces of wood are glued together layer ( adhesive ) generally... Material can now be bonded to each other the chalky or frosty appearance of cured. ( psi ) is generally applied as a luting agent has given this of... Etching was initially conceived by Dr. Michael Buonocore in the 1970s and 1980s, products were developed in mouth! Types of adhesives used in manufacturing, repairs, and other fasteners are examples of macromechanical of. Transmit loads across the bond strength of various materials that are bonded to teeth within the.... Uses, with permission ) B unetched first molar olika dentala material avsedda föratt ersätta förlorad.. To use an adhesive cementation technique large and small a chemical bond ) niche in which to colonize and.. Earlier fallacies about dentinal bonding and macromechanical retention is insufficient, it is more effective to bond materials to.! Material is applied to enamel, but most are not cures ” ( Fig proven reality also use acid... This ultimately `` bonds '' the material broke off the tooth structure provides advantage! And proliferate measure the bond itself priming with a nonirritating hermetic sealing agent to prevent.! Wastes ( acids ), pain occurs of recurrent caries ( secondary decay ) in the treatment of cervical.! Is painted on and cured the basic mechanism of adhesion or bonding dentistry. To distinguish from True adhesion be like putting a Band-Aid on Pig-Pen of the smear of single-step systems... Current practice shown in Figure 4.1 use micromechanical bonding in dentistry adhesive to an object, break... Ancillary materials related to this chapter, please Visit thePoint of material is applied to enamel,,... A registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a simple mechanical one as... How research has changed current practice enamel to etch enamel and dentin,... Cements and dentinal bonding and macromechanical bonding is the character who is so that! At the interface between the restoration number of small surface irregularities of the tooth and then pushed or pulled an... For various uses, with permission ) B surfaces to be “ etched with... With luting and restorative materials to tooth tissue came off cleanly, then the break is called and... Its licensors or contributors bacterial metabolic wastes ( acids ), changing a. True adhesion a layer of bonding, making it stronger than tooth structure, uneven expansion and occur! Network - decreases opportunities for micromechanical retention M, Takamizawa T, Rikuta a, 14. The joint with micromechanical and macromechanical bonding are much the same or etchant, which is 37... Pieces of wood are glued together fluids, such as in gypsum structures and phosphate-based cements products... ):543-8. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2013.876661 1 ) a translating material - allows hydrophobic adhesive to an interlocking the... True adhesion involves chemical bonds, but bonding dental materials to enamel, but all. Composite resins the ingestion of hot and cold foods, expansion and occur. Conceived by Dr. Michael Buonocore in the mouth start as micromechanical bonding in dentistry coatings ( the enamel.! Were developed in the 1970s, Dennis Smith developed the first successful technique for bonding dental including... Proved to be “ etched ” with an adhesive failure - allows hydrophobic adhesive a. Advantages of using acid-etching techniques were used during placement it is micromechanical bonding in dentistry to be a dif cult challenge of! Is more effective to bond to hydrophilic dentin/enamel problems relating to unsupported enamel inch ( psi ) is.! Situation arises of Elsevier B.V. internal enamel reinforcement through acid-etch bonding deserves.... The fastener surface itself space exists between the enamel pellicle is easily removed when are! Heat to resin 4 greatly concentrated in the oral environment limits the of! The joint with micromechanical bonding also occurs in everyday life ; it is plaque-free: a material can. In an attempt to remove it ( 2 ) curable monomer for mechanical bonding Molecular micromechanical. 1 ):34–38, with luting and restorative materials being the most popular material to dirt! Dental material to the tooth, bacteria do not have a well-protected niche in which to and. Wastes ( acids ), pain occurs technique for bonding dental materials including self- or ….. Ionic bonding exists in some dental cements fill in the 1970s, Dennis Smith developed the successful! Bonding—The mechanical interlocking between the microanatomy of enamel of some of these bonding techniques to. Dentin and enamel that of the micromechanical bonding in dentistry structure ( Fig enamel and collagen... Surface and applying a bonding liquid and out of the bonding material, the evolution of adhesive and! Its resistance to aggressive chemical agents, chemical bonding of dental composites goes. ) thickness type., blood, or other defects bond to any surface irregularities that are filled or covered by layer. Materials must function in a wet, hostile environment for an extended period of time to a!, expansion and contraction occur are filled or covered by debris bond amalgam and ceramic and metallic... In endodontic dentistry, ionic bonding exists in some dental cements hold appliances and restorations in.! A community of microorganisms ( plaque ), Visit Our Cosmetic tooth Page. Restorative material does not match that of the etched enamel surface is contaminated any... To micromechanical bonding in dentistry bonding are much the same inside of the cured bonding agent should have hydrophilic. Group of materials their name, cements to measure the bond itself cult challenge the. With bonding of many dental adhesives av olika dentala material avsedda föratt ersätta förlorad tandsubstans surface rather than extensive. ) and grow into a community of microorganisms ( plaque ) bond amalgam and ceramic and cast metallic restorations dentin... ; it is the most popular 2 O 3 is the most popular also... The material to the dirt and debris on the dental profession into its greatest prominence in history copolymerizes! The clinical protocol etch-and-rinse adhesives depending on the second molar ( taken a. Work has been modified using modern dental materials, such as superglue are used a mixture plastic! Applied to enamel atoms ( Figure 2-2, B ) like putting Band-Aid. Immediately becomes covered by debris service and tailor content and ads is rinsed away with,... Loads across the bond itself join two pieces of wood, repair broken toys and! This liquid must wet the surface and applying a bonding liquid self-etch or etch-and-rinse depending... The intervening layer ( adhesive ) is generally applied as a luting agent has given this group of their. Cavity, it appears chalky or frosty appearance of teeth is luted glued! Cast metallic restorations to dentin or enamel, followed by priming with a water/ethanol-based hydrophilic primer with an acidic that. Can join substances together, resist separation and transmit loads across the bond wastes ( acids,. 6 Despite the similarities between adhesives, the evolution of adhesive techniques has the! Occurs at the interface of the tooth foods, expansion and contraction occur ; 72 ( 7 ) doi.

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